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M.I.T. First term core macro. National income and employment. Readings and Exams. Domar, 1965

 

For the previous posting I transcribed Robert Solow’s reading list and mid-term exam for M.I.T.’s second term of graduate core macroeconomics. That course reading list was lean, short & sweet. Today we turn to my Doktorvater, Evsey D. Domar, who taught the first term of that graduate sequence. Both my obligation to friends of  Economics in the Rear-view Mirror and my profound doctor-filial piety were needed to motivate me to transcribe Domar’s entire fourteen page course reading list. I am delighted to say I was able to find the midterm and final exams for the year and include them here.

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THEORY OF NATIONAL INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT

E. D. Domar 14.451 Fall Term 1965-66
READING LIST

The purpose of this list is to suggest to the student the sources in which the more important topics of the course are discussed from several points of view. His objectives should be the understanding of these topics and not the memorization of opinions and details.

There now exists a good textbook on macroeconomics—Gardner Ackley, Macroeconomic Theory (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1961). Its knowledge is necessary but not sufficient for passing the course. While several copies are on reserve at Dewey, the acquisition of private copies is recommended.

It is also convenient to acquire the two National Income volumes published by the U.S. Department of Commerce and listed in Section I.

 

I. NATIONAL INCOME AND RELATED ITEMS
(September 21 – October 14)

REQUIRED

Ackley, Chapters 1-4.
Kuznets, S., National Income and Its Composition, Vol. I (New York, 1941). [handwritten note: Chap. 1]
National Income 1954 Edition, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, U.S. Department of Commerce (Washington, D.C., 1954), pp. 27-60, 153-58.
U.S. Income and Output, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, U.S. Department of Commerce (Washington, D. C., 1958), pp. 50-105. Browse through the statistical tables of both volumes to know what is available where.
Leontief, W. W., “Output, Employment, Consumption and Investment,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 58 (February, 1944), pp. 290-314.
Leontief, Studies in the Structure of the American Economy (New York, 1953), pp. 27-35.
Dorfman, R., “The Nature and Significance of Input-Output,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 36 (May, 1954), pp. 121-33.
Kendrick, J. W., Productivity Trends in the United States (Princeton, 1961), pp. xxxv-lii, 20-77.
Domar, E. D., “On Total Productivity and All That,” The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 70 (December, 1962), pp. 597-608. [This is a review of Kendrick’s book; several reprints are available in Dewey.]
Domar, E. D., “On the Measurement of Technological Change,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 71 (December, 1961), pp. 709-29. [Read only pp. 709-14, 726-29.]
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Industrial Production 1959 Revision (Washington, 1960), pp. iii-41. [Look for the method, not for statistical details.]
Sigel, S. J., “A Comparison of the Structures of Three Social Accounting Systems,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Input-Output Analysis: An Appraisal, The Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Studies in Income and Wealth, Vol. 18 (Princeton, 1955), pp. 253-89.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Jaszi, G., “The Statistical Foundations of the GNP,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 38 (May, 1956), pp. 205-14.
Domar, E. D., “An Index-Number Tournament,” mult., 1963. [Several copies are available in Dewey; your comments will be appreciated.]
Griliches, Zvi, “Notes on the Measurement of Price and Quality Changes,” and comments by Jaszi, Denison and Grove, in Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Models of Income Determination (Princeton, 1964), Vol. 28, pp. 381-418.
Lovell, Wilfred, Jr., “The Federal Sector in National Income Models,” and comments by Hickman and Pechman, in Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Models of Income Determination (Princeton, 1964), Vol. 28, pp. 233-78.
Bailey, M. J., National Income and the Price Level (New York, 1962), pp. 269-300.
Kuznets, S., National Income and Its Composition (New York, 1941).
Ruggles, R. and N., National Income Accounts and Income Analysis (New York, 1956).
Ruggles, “The U.S. National Accounts,” American Economic Review, Vol. 49, (March, 1959), pp. 85-95.
National Bureau of Economic Research, The National Economic Accounts of the United States, Review, Appraisal and Recommendations, General Series 64, (Washington, 1958).
Organization for European Economic Cooperation, A Standardised System of National Accounts, (Paris, 1952).
Gilbert, M. and I. B. Kravis, An International Comparison of National Products and the Purchasing Power of Currencies, A Study of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy, Organization for European Economic Cooperation (Paris, 1954).
Gilbert, M., Comparative National Products and Price Levels, A Study of Western Europe and the United States, Organization of European Economic Cooperation, (Paris, 1958).
United Nations, Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics, the latest issue.
United Nations, National Income Statistics, the latest issue.
United Nations, World Economic Survey and other Economic Surveys.
Studenski, The Income of Nations. Theory, Measurement, and Analysis: Past and Present (New York, 1958). [A wealth of information, particularly of historical character.]
Nove, A., “The United States National Income A La Russe,” Economica, Vol. 23, 1956.
Bergson, A. The Real National Income of Soviet Russia Since 1928 (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961).
Kravis, I. B., “Relative Income Shares in Fact and Theory,” American Economic Review, Vol. 49 (December, 1959), pp. 917-49.
Samuelson, P. A., “Evaluation of Real National Income,” Oxford Economic Papers (New Series), 1950, pp. 1-29.
Samuelson, “The Evaluation of ‘Social Income’: Capital Formation and Wealth,” in F. A. Lutz and D. C. Hague, editors, The Theory of Capital (London, 1961).
Leontief, W. W., The Structure of American Economy (New York, 1941).
Leontief, Studies in the Structure of the American Economy (New York, 1953).
Taskier, C. E., Input-Output Bibliography 1955-1960, United Nations (New York, 1961).
Evans, W. D., and M. Hoffenberg, “The Interindustry Relations Study for 1947,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 34, (May, 1952), pp. 97-142.
Stewart, I. G., “The Practical Uses of Input-Output Analysis,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 5, (February, 1958).
Dosser, D. and A. T. Peacock, “Input-Output Analysis in an Under-Developed Country: A Case Study,” Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 25 (October, 1957).
Input-Output Analysis: An Appraisal, Studies in Income and Wealth by the Conference on research in Income and Wealth, Vol. 18 (Princeton, 1955).
Solow, R. M. “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 39 (August, 1957), pp. 312-20.
Abramovitz, M., “Resources and Output in the United States Since 1870,” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 46 (May, 1956), pp. 5-23, reprinted as National Bureau of Economic Research, Occasional Paper 52 (New York, 1956).
Kendrick, J. W., Productivity Trends in the United States (Princeton, 1961).
Denison, E. F., Sources of Economic Growth in the United States and the Alternatives Before Us (New York, 1962).
Abramovitz, M., “Economic Growth in the United States,” American Economic Review, Vol. 52 (September, 1962), pp. 762-82. [This is a review of Denison’s Book.]
Moorsteen, R. H., “On Measuring Productive Potential and Relative Efficiency,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 75 (August, 1961), pp. 451-67.
Fabricant, S., The Output of Manufacturing Industries, 1899-1937 (New York, 1940), particularly Chapter 1.
United Nations, Statistical Office, Index Numbers of Industrial Production, St/Stat/ Ser/ F1 (New York, 1950).
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Flow of Funds in the United States 1939-53 (Washington, D. C., 1955).
Powelson, J. P., National Income and Flow-Of-Funds Analysis (New York, 1960).
Measuring the Nation’s Wealth, National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in Income and Wealth, Vol. 29 (Washington, D. C., 1964).

 

II. GENERAL AGGREGATIVE SYSTEMS
(October 19 – October 28).

REQUIRED:

Ackley, Parts II and III.
Keynes, J. M., The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London and New York, 1936). [Omit the appendixes to Chapters 6 and 19.]
Note: Neither book is arranged in the order of this reading list. Hence these two assignments apply to other sections of it as well.
Wells, P., “Keynes’ Aggregate Supply Function: A Suggested Interpretation,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 70 (September, 1960), pp. 536-42.
Johnson, H. G. and the discussants, “The General Theory After Twenty-five Years,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 60 (May, 1961), pp. 1-25.
Klein, L. R., “The Empirical Foundations of Keynesian Economics,” in K. K. Kurihara, ed., Post Keynesian Economics (New Brunswick, N. J., 1954), pp. 277-319.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Lekachman, Robert, Keynes’ General Theory: Reports of Three Decades, (New York and London, 1964).
Patinkin, D., Money, Interest, and Prices, Second Edition, (New York, 1965).
American Economic Association, Readings in Business Cycle Theory (Philadelphia, 1944), Essays 5, 7, 8.
American Economic Association, Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution (Philadelphia, 1946), Essay 24.
Metzler, “Three Lags in the Circular Flow of Income,” in Income, Employment and Public Policy, Essays in Honor of Alvin H. Hansen (New York, 1948), pp. 11-32.
Harris, S. E., The New Economics (New York, 1947), Essays 8-19, 31-33, 38-46.
Lerner, A. P., Economics of Control (New York, 1944), Chapters 21-23, 25.K
Kurihara, K. K., Post Keynesian Economics (New Brunswick, N. J., 1954).
Klein, L. R., The Keynesian Revolution, (New York, 1947), Chapters 3-5.
Ellis, H. S., A Survey of Contemporary Economics, Vol. 1, (Philadelphia, 1948), Chapter 2.
Burns, A. F., “Economic Research and the Keynesian Thinking of Our Times,” in his The Frontiers of Economic Knowledge, (Princeton, 1954), or in the Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (New York, 1946). See also the discussion by Hansen and Burns in the Review of Economic Statistics (November, 1947).
Dillard, D., “The Influence of Keynesian Economics on Contemporary Thought,” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 1957.
Hutt, W. H., Keynesianism: Retrospect and Prospect (Chicago, 1963).
Friedman, Milton, and G. S. Becker, “A Statistical Illusion on Judging Keynesian Models,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 55 (February, 1957), pp. 64-75.

 

III. PRICE FLEXIBILITY AND EMPLOYMENT
(November 2-11)

REQUIRED:

Patinkin, D., Money, Interest, and Prices, Second ed., (New York, 1965), Chapters 9-11.
Pigou, A. C., “The Classical Stationary State,” Economic Journal (December, 1943).
Power, J. H., “Price Expectations, Money Illusion and the Real Balance Effect,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 67 (April, 1959).
Mayer, T., “The Empirical Significance of the Real Balance Effect,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 73 (May, 1959).

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Readings in Monetary Theory, Essay 13.
Schelling, T. C., “The Dynamics of Price Flexibility,” American Economic Review (September, 1949).
Lange, O., Price Flexibility and Employment (Bloomington, Indiana, 1944). [Get the main idea and omit the details.]
Friedman, M., “Lange on Price Flexibility and Employment,” American Economic Review (September, 1946).
Patinkin, D., Money, Interest, and Prices (Evanston, Illinois, 1956).
Hicks, J. R., “A Rehabilitation of ‘Classical Economics’,” Economic Journal, Vol. 47, (June, 1957).

 

IV. THEORY OF INTEREST
(November 16-25)

REQUIRED:

Hicks, J. R., Value and Capital (Oxford, 1957), Chapters 11 & 12.
Lydall, H., “Income, Assets, and the Demand for Money,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 40 (February, 1958), pp. 1-14.
Gurley, J. G., and E. S. Shaw, “Financial Aspects of Economic Development,” American Economic Review, Vol. 65 (September, 1955), pp. 515-38.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Patinkin, the rest of his excellent book.
Gurley, J. G., and E. S. Shaw, Money in a Theory of Finance (Washington, 1960).
Tobin, J., “Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk,” The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 25 (February, 1958), pp. 65-86.
Hart, A. G., and P. B. Kenen, Money, Debt and Economic Activity, Third Ed., (Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1961).
American Economic Association, Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution (Philadelphia, 1946), Essays 22, 23, 26.
American Economic Association, Readings in Monetary Theory, (New York, 1951), Essays 6, 11, 15.
Patinkin, D., “Liquidity Preference and Loanable Funds: Stock and Flow Analysis,” Economica, Vol. 25 (November, 1958).
Lutz, F. A., “The Interest Rate and Investment in a Dynamic Economy,” American Economic Review, (December, 1945).
Wright, A. L., “The Rate of Interest in a Dynamic Model,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 72 (August, 1958), pp. 327-50.
Matthews, R. C. O., “Liquidity Preference and the Multiplier,” Economica, Vol. 28 (February, 1961), pp. 37-52.
Supplement to the Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 45 (February, 1963) on “The State of Monetary Economics.”
Friedman, M. and A. J. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States 1867-1960 (Princeton, N. J., 1963).
Friedman, M., ed., Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money (Chicago, 1956).

See also INVESTMENT DECISIONS.

 

V. CONSUMPTION AND SAVING
(November 30- December 9)

REQUIRED:

Crockett, Jean, “Income and Asset Effects on Consumption: Aggregate and Cross Section,” and comments by D. B. Suits, in Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Models of Income Determination (Princeton, 1964), Vol. 23, pp. 97-136.
Duesenberry, J. S., Income, Saving, and the Theory of Consumer Behavior (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1949). Omit the details and get the main points.
Friedman, M., A Theory of the Consumption Function (Princeton, 1957), Chapter 9.
Friend, I., and I. B. Kravis, “Entrepreneurial Income, Saving and Investment,” American Economic Review, Vol. 47 (June, 1957), pp. 269-301.
Tobin, J., “On the Predictive Value of Consumer Intentions and Attitudes,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 41 (February, 1959), pp. 1-11.
Farrell, M. J., “The New Theories of the Consumption Function,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 69 (December, 1959), pp. 678-96.
Dobrovolsky, S. P., Corporate Income Retention 1915-43 (New York, 1951). [Omit the details.]
Lintner, J. and discussants, “Distribution of Income of Corporations Among Dividends, Retained Earnings, and Taxes,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 46 (May, 1956), pp. 97-118.
Gordon, M. J., “The Optimum Dividend Rate,” presented at the 6th Annual International Meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences (Paris, September, 1959). [On library reserve.]
Domar, E. D., Essays in the Theory of Economic Growth (New York, 1957), pp. 154-67, 195-201.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Ferber, R., “The Accuracy of Aggregate Savings Functions in the Post-War Years,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 37 (May, 1955), pp. 134-48.
Friedman, the rest of his book.
Brown, E. C., Solow, R. M., Ando, A., and J. Karekan, “Lags in Fiscal and Monetary Policy,” in Commission on Money and Credit, Stabilization Policies (Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1963), pp. 1-165.
Modigliani, F., and R. Brumberg, “Utility Analysis and the Consumption Function: An Interpretation of Cross-Section Data,” in Kurihara, K. K., ed., Post Keynesian Economics (New Brunswick, N. J., 1954), pp. 388-436.
See also its discussion by Brown, B., and F. M. Fisher, “Negro-White Savings Differentials and the Modigliani-Brumberg Hypothesis,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 40 (February, 1958), pp. 79-81.
Friend, I., and S. Schor, “Who Saves?,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 41 (May, 1959), pp. 213-45.
Zellner, Arnold, “The Short-Run Consumption Function,” Econometrica, (October, 1957).
Dennison, E. F., “A Note on Private Saving,” Review of Economics and Statistics, (August, 1958).
Friedman, M., and G. Becker, “A Statistical Illusion in Judging Keynesian Models,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 65 (February, 1957).
Klein, L. R., “The Friedman-Becker Illusion,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 66 (December, 1958).
Morgan, J. N., Consumer Economics (New York, 1955).
Katona, G., and E. Mueller, Consumer Expectations 1953-56 (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956).
Bailey, M. J., “Saving and the Rate of Interest,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 45 (August, 1957), pp. 279-305. Reprinted in Landmarks in Political Economy, edited by E. J. Hamilton, A. Rees, and Johnson, H. G., (Chicago, 1962), pp. 583-622.
Klein, L. R., ed., Contributions of Survey Methods to Economics (New York, 1954).
Goldsmith, R. W., A Study of Saving in the United States, Three volumes (Princeton, 1952).
Heller, W. W., Boddy, F. M., and C. L. Nelson, Savings in the Modern Economy, a Symposium (Minneapolis, 1953).
Mincer, J., “Employment and Consumption,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 42 (February, 1960), pp. 20-26.

 

VI. INVESTMENT DECISIONS
(December 14 – January 6)

REQUIRED:

Ackley, Chapter 17.
Solomon, E., ed., The Management of Corporate Capital (Glencoe, Ill., 1959), pp. 48-55, 67-73.
White, W. H., “Interest Inelasticity of Investment Demand—The Case from Business Attitude Surveys Re-examined,” American Economic Review, Vol. 46 (September, 1956), pp. 565-587.
Meyer, J. R., and E. Kuh, The Investment Decision (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1957), Chapter 12.
Penrose, E., “Limits to the Growth and Size of Firms,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 45 (May, 1955), pp. 531-43.
Foss, M. F., and Natrella, V., “Ten Years’ Experience with Business Investment Anticipations,” Survey of Current Business (January, 1957).
Schultz, T. W., “Capital Formation by Education,” The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 68 (December, 1960), pp. 571-83.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Lerner, A. P., “On the Marginal Product of Capital and the Marginal Efficiency of Investment,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 51 (February, 1953), pp. 1-14. Reprinted in Landmarks in Political Economy edited by E. J. Hamilton, Rees, A., and H. G. Johnson (Chicago, 1962), pp. 538-58.
Pitchford, J. D. and A. J. Hagger, “A Note on the Marginal Efficiency of Capital,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 48 (September, 1958), pp. 597-600.
Duesenberry, J., Business Cycles and Economic Growth (New York, 1958), Chapters 4-7.
Meyer and Kuh, the rest of the book.
Hirschleifer, J., “On the Theory of Optimal Investment Decision,” The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 66 (August, 1958), pp. 329-352. [An excellent but difficult paper.]
James, E., A Reconsideration of the Theoretical Criteria for Optimum Investment Planning (M.I.T. doct. diss., 1961). [A good survey of the literature.]
Lovell, M. C., “Determinants of Inventory Investment,” in Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Models of Income Determination (Princeton, 1964), Vol. 28, pp. 177-232.
Penrose, E. T., The Theory of the Growth of the Firm (Oxford, 1959).
The Quality and Economic Significance of Anticipations Data, A Conference of the Universities—National Bureau Committee for Economic Research (Princeton, 1960).
Foss, M. F., “Investment Plans and Realizations—Reasons for Differences in Individual Cases,” Survey of Current Business (June, 1957).
Foss, M. F., “Manufacturers’ Inventory and Sales Expectations—A Progress Report on a New Survey,” Survey of Current Business (August, 1961).
Robinson, J., The Accumulation of Capital (London, 1956). [Wish we had time for it.]
Lutz, F. A., and V., the Theory of Investment of the Firm (Princeton, 1951).
Heller, W. W., “The Anatomy of Investment Decisions,” Harvard Business Review, (March, 1951), pp. 95-103.
Meade, J. E., and P. W. S. Andrews, “Summary of Replies to Questions on Effects of Interest Rates,” and “Further Inquiry into the Effects of Rates of Interest,” Oxford Economic Papers, No. 1, 1938 and No. 3, 1940.
Ebersole, J. F., “The Influence of Interest Rates,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 17, 1938, pp. 35-39.
Henderson, H. D., “The Significance of the Rate of Interest,” Oxford Economic Papers (October, 1938), pp. 1-13.
Andrews, P. W. S., “Further Inquiry into the Effects of Rates of Interest,” Oxford Economic Papers, (February, 1940), pp. 32-73.
Sayers, R. S., “Business Men and the Terms of Borrowing,” Oxford Economic Papers (February, 1940), pp. 23-31.
Brockie, M. D., and A. L. Gray, “The Marginal Efficiency of Capital and Investment Programming,” Economic Journal, Vol. 46 (December, 1956).
White, W. H., “The Rate of Interest, the Marginal Efficiency of Capital, and Investment Programming,” Economic Journal, Vol. 48 (March, 1958).
Grey, A. L., and M. D. Brockie, “the Rate of Interest, Marginal Efficiency of Captial and Net Investment Programming: A Rejoinder,” Economic Journal (June, 1959).
Spiro, A., “Empirical Research and the Rate of Interest,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 40 (February, 1958).
Cunningham, N. J., “Business Investment and the Marginal Cost of Funds,” Metroeconomica, Vol. 10 (August, 1958).
Cunningham, N. J., “Business Investment and the Marginal Cost of Funds,” Part II, Metroeconomica (December, 1958).
Wilson, T., “Cyclical and Autonomous Inducements to Invest,” Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 5, 1953.
Lydall, H. F., “The Impact of the Credit Squeeze on Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Firms,” Economic Journal, Vol. 47 (September, 1957).
Friend, I., and J. Bronfenbrenner, “Business Investment Programs and Their Realization,” Survey of Current Business (December, 1950).
Schultz, T. W., “Investment in Human Capital,” American Economic Review, Vol. 60 (March, 1961) pp. 1-17.
Houthakker, H. S., “Education and Income,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 41 (February, 1959), pp. 24-28.
Eckhaus, R. S., “On the Comparison of Human Capital,” Center for International Studies, M.I.T., mult.
Becker, G. S., Human Capital: a Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education (New York, 1964).

See also THEORY OF INTEREST and MULTIPLIER AND ACCELERATOR

 

VII. MULTIPLIER AND ACCELERATOR
(January 11 – 18)

REQUIRED:

Kahn, R. F., “The Relation of Home Investment to Unemployment,” Economic Journal, 1931. Republished in Hansen and Clemence, Readings in Business Cycles and National Income (New York, 1953), Essay 15.
Readings in Business Cycle Theory, Essays 9-12.
Haavelmo, T., “Multiplier Effects of a Balanced Budget,” Econometrica, 1945, reprinted in Readings in Fiscal Policy, pp. 335-343.
Salant, William A., “Taxes, Income Determination, and the Balanced Budget Theorem,” The Review of Economics and Statistics (May, 1957).
Tsiang, S. C., “Accelerator, Theory of the Firm, and the Business Cycle,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 65, 1951.

ADDITIONAL READINGS:

Tinbergen, “Statistical Evidence on the Acceleration Principle,” Economica, Vol. 5, 1938.
Eisner, R., “Capital Expenditures, Profits, and the Acceleration Principle,” and comments by G. H. Hickman, in Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Models of Income Determination, (Princeton, 1964), Vol. 28, pp. 137-176.
Peston, M. H., “Generalizing the Balanced Budget Multiplier,” and “Comment” by W. A. Salant, The Review of Economics and Statistics (August, 1958).
Bowen, W. G., “The Balanced-Budget Multiplier: A Suggestion for a More General Formulation,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, (May, 1957).
Goodwin, R. M., “The Multiplier” in Seymour E. Harris, ed., The New Economics (New York, 1947), pp. 482-99.
Chenery, H. B., “Overcapacity and the Acceleration Principle,” Econometrica, Vol. 20 (January, 1952), pp. 1-28.
Caff, J. T., “A Generalization of the Multiplier-Accelerator Model,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 69 (March, 1961), pp. 36-52.
Kuznets, S., “Relation Between Capital Goods and Finished Products in the Business Cycle,” in Economic Essays in Honor of Wesley Clair Mitchell, (New York, 1935).
Knox, A. D. “The Acceleration Principle and the Theory of Investment: A Survey,” Economica, Vol. 19, 1952.
Harrod, R. F., Towards a Dynamic Economics (London, 1948).
Hicks, J. R., A Contribution to the Theory of the Trade Cycle (Oxford, 1950).
Goodwin, R. M., “Problems of Trend and Cycle,” Yorkshire Bulletin, Vol. 5 (August, 1953).
Ott, A. E., “The Relation Between the Accelerator and the Capital Output Ratio,” Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 25, (June, 1958).
Minsky, H., “Monetary Systems and Accelerator Models,” American Economic Review, Vol. 47, 1957.
Friedman, M. and D. Meiselman, “The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1897-1958,” Stabilization Policies, Commission on Money and Credit, (New Jersey, 1963), pp. 165-268.
Hester, D. D., “Keynes and the Quantity Theory: a Comment on the Friedman-Meiselman CMC Paper,” the reply by Friedman and Meiselman, and the rejoinder by Hester, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. XLVI (November, 1964), pp. 364-377.

See also INVESTMENT DECISIONS.
This subject will also be discussed in Economics 14.452.

 

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS (If time permits)

Ackley, Chapters 16, 20.
Mincer, Jacob, “Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution,” The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 66 (August, 1958), pp. 281-302.
Goldsmith, Selma F., “Size Distribution of Personal Income, 1956-59,” Survey of Current Business (April, 1960).
Liebenberg, M., and J. M. Fitzwilliams, “Size Distribution of Personal Income, 1957-60,” Survey of Current Business (May, 1961).

A few other sources may be added from time to time.

 

Source: Duke University, David M. Rubenstein Library. Economists’ Papers Archives. Papers of Evsey D. Domar, Box 15, Folder “Macroeconomics, Old Reading Lists”.

___________________

 MIDTERM EXAMINATION
(One hour and twenty minutes)

THEORY OF INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT
E. D. Domar ….. 14.451 ….. December 9, 1965

 

Please answer all questions. Use a separate book for each question.

  1. [25%] The economy consists of carrots, rabbits and dogs. Rabbits cultivate and eat carrots, while dogs breed and eat rabbits.
    You are asked to compute the national income and product for this economy from the point of view of:

(a) The rabbits
(b) The dogs

Explain your methods carefully and indicate the basic philosophy underlying them. [handwritten note:  Too easy]

  1. [25%] “Existing methods of national product computations exaggerate the rate of growth of real product over time in a given country, and overstate the ratio between the real product of highly developed and of underdeveloped countries.”
    Comment fully and critically. [handwritten note: explain better in class]
  2. [30%] Write a comprehensive essay on the subject of “Keynes and Patinkin on the Relation between the Quantity of Money on the one hand, and Interest Rate, Price Level and National Income on the other.”
  3. [20%] Discuss the treatment of intermediate products in several indexes of industrial productions. Give examples.

 

Source: Duke University, David M. Rubenstein Library. Economists’ Papers Archives. Papers of Evsey D. Domar, Box 15, Folder “Examinations (1 of 3)”.

___________________

FINAL EXAMINATION
Three Hours
 

E. D. Domar ….. 14.451 ….. January 26, 1966

Please answer any FIVE questions out of six. Whenever you feel that the questions do not provide sufficient information for you to answer, add the necessary assumptions and state them clearly. Read each question through before answering any part of it.

  1. (a) “The best cure against inflation is a balanced budget.”
    (b) “The more each individual or corporation tries to save, the smaller will be the total savings for the economy as a whole.”

Comment on each statement separately.

  1. “The best cure against inflation is increased production.”

Comment fully. Assume that there are unemployed resources to allow for increased production. (Hint: production of what?)
In the light of your answer, do you think a prolonged strike in some industry is inflationary or deflationary? Explain your position.

  1. (a) Explain the several definitions of MONEY used in Price Flexibility and Employment discussions. In each case indicate the specific reasons for that particular definition.
    (b) For each definition of money given by you in (a), examine the effects on the stock of money of central bank purchases of (i) government securities, (ii) private securities, (iii) gold from the public.

Comment on your results.

  1. (a) Explain the meaning of PRODUCTIVITY from a private and from a social point of view.
    (b) In the light of your explanation given in (a), comment on the productivity of the following persons and on the treatment of their incomes in the national income and product accounts:

(i) A public relations employee of a private corporation

(ii) A public relations employee of the U.S. Department of Defense

(iii) A recipient of interest from the General Electric Company. (You happen to know that he has inherited his bonds from his great uncle who was a great swindler.)

(iv) A recipient of interest on U.S bonds issued in order to finance aid to schools.

(v) A lawyer defending a bookmaker in court

(vi) A nasty professor whose course was a complete waste of time.

Look over your answers and try to generalize (unless you have already said all you want to say in part (a)).

  1. Applying (a) such consumption theories as you know, and (b) your own common sense and empirical knowledge, discuss the effects on consumer spending of the following measures. Assume that the amounts of tax reduction in the first three cases and the amount of dividend in the fourth are all equal in a given year.

(i) A reduction in the Federal income tax (Specify the kind of reduction.)

(ii) A reduction in the Federal capital gains tax

(iii) A reduction in the Federal estate (inheritance) tax

(iv) A declaration of a national dividend (specify the kind) for a given year

(v) A redistribution of income from the rich to the poor

(vi) A redistribution of income from landlords to businessmen (in some underdeveloped country).

Any generalizations?

  1. (a) “Technological progress raises the level of income and employment by making existing assets obsolete and thus shortening their economic life.”

Comment on this statement. Assume that the economy has unemployed resources.

(b) Alvin Hansen used to argue that one reason for the stagnation of the American economy in the nineteen-thirties and for the high level of UNEMPLOYMENT then existing consisted in the slow growth of population at the time.

Do you agree? Comment fully. Should an underemployed economy encourage immigration or emigration, or neither?

 

Source: Duke University, David M. Rubenstein Library. Economists’ Papers Archives. Papers of Evsey D. Domar, Box 16, Folder “Macroeconomics, Final Exams”.

 

Image Source: Evsey D. Domar at the MIT Museum.

Irwin Collier

Posted by: Irwin Collier

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